Watertown High School Library,
The following bibliographic formats are based on the Modern Language Association citation formats. For further information, students should consult a copy of the Handbook. Copies are available at the WHS Library. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Return to: WHS Library
1. Book with One Author
Author's last name, First name. Title of the book: Subtitle. City: Publisher, Date. Print.
Schwaitz, Bernard. Decision: How the Supreme Court Decides Cases. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.
2. Book with Two or More Authors
Author's last name, First name and Second Author's full name. Title of the book: Subtitle. City: Publisher, Date. Print.
Neilson, Alleen Pace and Kenneth Donelson. Literature for Today's Young Adults. New York: Harper Collins, 1993. Print.If the names listed on the title page are editors, place a comma after the final name and add the abbreviation eds.
Henderson, Helene and Jay P. Pederson, eds. Twentieth Century Literary Movements Dictionary. Detroit, Michigan: Omnigraphics, Inc., 2000. Print.
3. An Anthology or a Compilation (when using the entire anthology)
Bernards, Neil ed. Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1989. Print.
4. A Work in an Anthology (short story, poem or other work found within a collection or anthology)
Cantor, Norman L. "Euthanasia Should Be Based on Quality of Life." Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints. Ed. Neil Bernards. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1989. 107-113. Print.
5. Article in a Familiar Reference Book (encyclopedia or dictionary)
"Geomorphology." World Book Encyclopedia. 1997 ed. Print.
6. A Multivolume Work with Signed Articles
Schmidt, Benno C., Jr. "Prior Restraint and Censorship." Ed. Leonard W. Levy. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan, 1986. 1453-56. Print.
7. Article in a Reference Book That Is Not Attributed to a Particular Author
"Ethan Frome." Novels for Students. Eds. Sheryl Ciccrelli and Marie Rose Napiekowski. Vol . 5. Detroit: Gale, 1998. 34-5. Print.
8. Previously Published Scholarly Article Appearing in a Collection
Rpt. in = reprinted in
Author's Last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of First Publication in which the Article Appeared. Other information Depending on the Type of Publication. Rpt in.Title of Collection. Ed. Name. Vol. number. Place of publication: Publisher, Copyright Date. Page numbers. Print.
Roberts, Sheila. "A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith." World Literature in English 24 (1984): 232-38. Rpt. in Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 399-402. Print.
Cite a pamphlet as you would a book.
10. Missing Information in Books
If information is unavailable, use the following abbreviations for information you cannot supply
No place of publication
No publisher given
No date of publication given
No pagination given
1. Article in a Weekly or Biweekly Magazine
Chollar, Susan. "Eating Disorders. " Women's Day 3 July 1997: 47. Print.
2. Article in a Monthly Magazine
Roach, Mary. "Journey to the Bottom of the Earth." Reader's Digest Nov. 1997: 126-131. Print.
3. Anonymous Article Not Printed on Consecutive Pages
"Cellular Phones With Less Static." Consumer Reports Nov. 1997: 16+. Print.
If the article is not written on consecutive pages write only the first page number and a plus sign.
1. An Article or Feature
Author's last name, First name. "Article title." Name of the newspaper Date, edition (if applicable): page number(s). print
Hart, Jordana. "Practice Exams End for 180,000 Students." Boston Globe 7 Nov. 1997: B2. Print.
2. An Editorial
"Convention Center Victory." Editorial. Boston Globe 7 Nov 1997: A26. Print.
Seinfeld, Jerry. Telephone interview. 7 June 1997.
Ho, David. Personal interview. 4 November 1997.
Ann Rice. Interview by Liane Hansen. Weekend Edition. Nat'l Public Radio. NPR, Washington. 26 October 2003. Radio,
Title of Film. Director's Name. Performers' Names. The Distributor, Year. Film.Example:
Three Kings. Dir. David O. Russell. Perf. George Clooney, et al. Warner Bros, 1999. Film.
2. Videocassette, DVD
Title of film. Director. Performers. Year of release. Year. distributor, date of distribution. Medium.
Good Will Hunting. Dir. Gus Van Sant. Perf. Matt Damon, Minnie Driver, Robin Williams. 1997. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 1997. DVD.
1. Original Painting
Artist's last name, First name. Title of work. Institution, City.
Blackburn, Joseph. Isaac Winslow and His Family. 1775. Oil on canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
2. Reproduction of a Painting, Sculpture, or PhotographWhen citing a reproduction of a painting, a piece of sculpture, or a photograph, list the institution or private owner. Also, include all the publication information for the source in which the photograph appears. Include the page, slide or plate number, whichever is available. If you wish to indicate when the work was created, add the date after the title.
Artist's Last name, First name. Title of work. Institution that houses the work, City. Title of book. Author. City of publication: Publisher. page or plate number.
Monet, Claude. Floating Ice. 1880. Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont. Claude Monet 1840-1926. by Charles F. Stuckey. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995. Slide 56.
O'Keefe, Georgia. Cow's Skull: Red, White and Blue. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Modern American Painting. by the editors of Time Life Books. Alexandria, Virginia: Time Life, 1970. 36. Print.
3. WWW Reproductions of Painting, Sculpture or Photographs
Sargent, John Singer. The Daughters of Edward D. Boit . 1882. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Web. 19 October 2009.
Remember, whenever you draw on another person's work for facts, opinions, ideas, paraphrasing or exact quotes, you must give credit to the source through documentation.
Citations in parenthesis tell the reader to turn to the "Works Cited" page at the end of your paper. Alphabetically arranged, this list gives full identification of the sources you have used.
For other examples and further information, students should consult the original document. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009.
1. Standard form
During the 1920s factories were very busy and most people had secure jobs. Still problems began to show up in the economy because during World War I "farmers borrowed money to buy more machinery and land to meet the high demand for food in Europe. When the war ended their foreign markets collapsed" (Scott 261).
The period, to end the sentence, comes after the parenthesis.
2. Other circumstances
Two authors with the same last name: (J. Scott 239).
Two books by the same author: (Scott, The Story of America 261).
Two or Three authors: (Smith and Jones 235).
1. When incorporating the author's name:
John Scott explains that during World War I "farmers borrowed money to buy more machinery and land to meet the high demand for food in Europe. When the war ended their foreign markets collapsed" (261).
2. When incorporating the author's name and the title of
In his book The Story of America, John Scott explains that during World War I "farmers borrowed money to buy more machinery and land to meet the high demand for food in Europe. When the war ended their foreign markets collapsed" (261).
1. Dramatic Works
Cite the act, scene and line(s)
Shakespeare's Hamlet seems resolute when he declares, "The play's the thing / Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the King" (2.2. 633 - 34).
2. Prose Works
Classic prose works are available in several editions. Therefore it is helpful to provide the reader with enough information to locate a quotation in any copy of the novel. Cite the page in the edition used and follow it with a semi colon and a section or chapter number to enable the reader to locate the passage in any copy of the novel.
Raskolnikov first appears in Crime and Punishment as a man contemplating a terrible act but frightened of meeting his talkative landlady on the stairs (Dostoevsky 1; pt. 1, ch. 1).
1. Periodicals on CD-ROM
Author's Last Name, First name (if available). "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: pages. Name of Program. Name of vendor. Date. Medium
Chollar, Susan. "Eating Disorders." Women's Day 3 July 1997: 47. EBSCO. Apr. 1996 - Aug. 1997. CD ROM.
2. Encyclopedia and Reference Works on CD ROM
Author's Last Name, First Name (if available). "Title of Article." Name of Product. Version or release (if available). CD ROM. City of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Flaubert, Gustave. "Madame Bovary". Monach Notes. New Jersey: Simon & Schuster. 1992. CD ROM.
3. World Wide Web (WWW)
a. Professional or Personal Internet Site
Author's Last name, First name. "Title of www page." Sponsoring institution or organization. Date of publication. Web. Access Date.
O’Leary, Donal. ”Tellurium.” The Chemical Elements. Department of Chemistry at University College Cork. 2000. Web.19 October 2009.
Example of a page within a site:
Author’s last name, first name. “Title of the Page.” Name of the Site, Date of site. Medium. Date of Access. <URL>.
Cody, David. “Dickens: A Brief Biography.” The Victorian Web, 1988. Web. 16 October 2009. <http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/dickens/dickensbio1.html>.
Example of a personal home page:
Bousfield, Wendy. Home Page. 25 July 2000. Web. 16 October 2009. <http://web.syr.edu/~blbousfi/>.
b. Online Encyclopedia
Author's last name, first [if given]. "Article or Web page title." Web site title, Publication date or latest update of the site. Producer or sponsor of the site. Web. Access date.
Wilson, John F. "Puritans." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2009. Web. 26 October 2009.
c. Scholarly Project
Author's Last name, First name. "Title of www page." Sponsoring institution or organization. Date of publication (day, month, year). Medium. (Web) Date of access. <full web address> (if required by teacher)
When information is missing cite what is available.
No place of publication
No publisher given
No date of publication given
No pagination given
Martin, Thomas R. "An overview of classical Greek history from Homer to Alexander." The Perseus Project, n.d. Web. 20 October 2009. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0009:head%3D%2376>.
Thomas: Legislative Information on the internet. Lib. of Congress, Washington, 26 May 1998. Web 20 October 2009
d. Information Database
Structure for a periodical publication:
Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Name. Volume number Issue number. Date: (for Scholarly Journal; the year, for other periodicals, the day, month and year if available) : pages or indicator of length. Title of the database. Publisher. Medium. date of access.
Battersby, John. "Nelson Mandela's Moral Legacy." The Christian Science Monitor. 10 May 1999: 9(1). General Reference Center Gold. Gale. Web. 21 October 2009.
e. Article in a Scholarly Journal
Author's Last name, First name. "Title of the Work." Name of periodical. vol. number or other identifying number (date of publication): number range or total number of pages. medium. (Web) date of access.
Duc, P. A. et al. "Formation of a Tidal Dwarf Galaxy in the Interacting System Arp 245 (NGC 2992/93). " The Astronomical Journal, 120:1238-1264, (2000). Web. 21 October 2009.
Author. Rev. of Title of work. Dir. Name. Name of periodical vol. number or other identifying number. Total no. of pages. Date of publication . Date of Access. address. Date of access.
Ebert, Roger. Rev. of The Way of the Gun, dir. Christopher McQuarrie. Chicago Sun-Times. 8 September 2000. Web. 21 October 2009.
KIsor, Henry. Rev.of. "Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869." By Stephen E. Ambroise. New York . 22 September 2000. Web. 21 October 2009.
Author's last name, First name. "Title of message." Massage to recipient. Date of message.
Smith, John. "Planning State Budgets.'' Message to Mary Jones. 3 October 2009. E-mail.
h. Painting, Sculpture or Photograph on the World Wide Web
When citing a reproduction of a painting or sculpture list the institution or private owner and include all the publication information for the source in which the photograph appears. Include the page, slide or plate number whichever is available. If you wish to indicate when the work was created, add the date after the title. For WWW publications include the date of access before the url.
Sargent, John Singer. The Daughters of Edward D. Boit . 1882. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Web. 21 October 2009.
When selecting Internet resources it is important to choose resources that contain valid information written by reliable authors.
Recognizing four categories of Web Pages that are useful for research projects:
- Informational Pages
- News and Periodical Sources
News wire sites
Online magazines Newspapers
- Advocacy Pages
- Personal Home Pages
Post their resumes
List links to their favorite sites
List their accomplishments
Write their ideas.
Source: Alexander, Jane and Marsha Tate. "Teaching Critical Evaluation Skills for World Wide Web Resources." July 1996. Wolfgram Memorial Library. Widener University.
Consider the Author
The resource should include the author's name. Check to see if the Web/Internet document gives biographical information about the author. Many reliable sites are written by authors who list their academic position, their institutional affiliation, and their address.
A name and an e-mail address do not give enough information to determine if the author is an authority on a given topic.
Does the author have an affiliation with a known institution or respected organization?
If the site does not provide biographical information about the author, see if you can find information about the author's professional background. Return to the homepage of the document to see if further information is given. Did you follow a link to this site from a document that you trust?
Determine if the author will have personal gain from the site.For example, is the site a platform for his political views? If so, find other sites with opposing view points and evaluate the information to form your own conclusions.
Consider the Content
Check the content for bias. Ask yourself if the author uses judgmental language. Does the author repeatedly use superlatives or words like "always" and "never." Evaluate the information in this article and compare it with information from other resources in order to determine if it is a valid site for your research.
Consider if this page presents a new perspective on the topic, or is it just a summary of other documents.If it is just a summary, use it to find the originals. Use the original authoriative source for your information.
Determine if the contents have been written for the commercial purpose of introducing the reader to a subject in order to sell a service or a product.This is not an authoritative site and its information should not be used for a school assignment.
Oftentimes reliable resources will include a bibliography.
At the end of the site there should be a date when the site was created and/or updated.For some assignments currency is not an issue, but other times you may want the most recent information on a topic.
Consider the Address
Read the Web site Evaluation Criteria developed by Susan E. Back of the New Mexixo State University Library
The Good, The Bad & The Ugly: or, Why It's a Good Idea to Evaluate Web Sources
BOOKS: One Author Two
OTHER: Periodicals Newspapers Articles Editorials Interviews Format for Works Cited Page